Ostomy systems consist of a base plate and an ostomy bag.



CATHETERISATION / Types of catheters and catheterisation

The importance of intermittent catheterisation in solving clinical problems associated with mechanical or functional bladder emptying disorder is beyond doubt. At the same time, it represents a technique that reduces the risk of life-threatening deterioration of the upper urinary tract and urosepse in patients with spinal cord problems.

The type of patients using intermittent catheterisation varies from those suffering from injuries and diseases of the spinal cord to men suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia. Pure intermittent catheterisation was presented in the 1970s as a substitute for the strict aseptic technique.

This allowed for a different approach to problems associated with continence and dysuria. The clinical practice has shown that this is an exceptional technique for minimising urinary complications in patients.

The key to the success of pure intermittent catheterisation is the reduced incidence of urinary tract infections (IUT). A wide range of short-term research records good clinical results and high patient satisfaction with the new procedure.

Dilatation of the kidney canals is facilitated or improved by catheterisation, as well as the status of the upper urinary tract.

However, given the possible need for long-term and even life-long catheterisation, the results of long-term research are particularly important.

Such research is important not only to demonstrate the effectiveness of regular catheterisation, but also to assess all issues related to complications resulting from the long-term use.

The main problems associated with the long-term use include clinical symptoms such as complications, injuries and urinary tract infections.

Due to its great importance, we encourage you to expand your knowledge of catheterisation, follow the latest trends, and with the advice of your doctor, choose the best procedures and the best urine catheters for you. The aim is to prevent complications and consequently enjoy the benefits of the long-term use of pure intermittent catheterisation.

What is today considered a “golden standard” of catheterisation?

Pure intermittent catheterisation is the “golden standard” of methods for bladder emptying in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction problems. The use of PVC hydrophilic catheters without phthalates increases safety and efficiency, resulting in an improved kidney and upper urinary tract status. In addition to the clinical benefits, the quality of the patient’s life is also increased, as catheterisation gives them a greater level of independence and safety.

What is catheterisation and what types of catheterisation are there?

Catheterisation is the process of discharging urine from the bladder that takes place through the inserted tube (catheter).

There are two ways of catheterisation: permanent and occasional (intermittent)

  • Permanent catheterisation is a procedure in which the catheter is inserted for a long period of time (up to a few weeks). Permanent catheterisation can be done through the urethra or through the abdominal wall (suprapubic catheterisation).
  • Intermittent catheterisation is a procedure in which a catheter is placed and extracted each time for each discharge of the bladder.

What types of catheters are there?

There are various ways to systematise urinary catheters, but here we will mention only a few

  • By catheterisation method: permanent and intermittent
  • By method of use: standard and hydrophilic
  • By material: PVC and latex

Catheters for permanent catheterisation

1. Permanent-Foley’s catheter

Foley’s catheter is a flexible silicone or rubber tube passes through the urethra to the bladder. The tube has two separate channels, lumens, which pass through the entire length of the catheter. One of the lumens is open at both ends and allows urine to leak into a bag. The second lumen has a valvula which has a balloon at the end. A saline solution is placed into the balloon in order to ‘inflate’ it and keep the catheter in the bladder.

2. Suprapubic catheter

A suprapubic catheter is applied in the bladder through the abdominal wall, but due to its invasive method it is only used in rare situations.

Catheters for intermittent (occasional), catheterisation

1. Standard catheters

They are used with a lubricant gel to reduce friction when inserting the catheter.

2. Hydrophilic catheters

Hydrophilic catheters are coated with a lubricant that turns into a smooth hydrophilic layer after 30 seconds of contact with water. These catheters have a layer of polymer covering their surface. The polymer layer absorbs and retains water, resulting in a smooth and slippery surface which is persistent in contact with the urethra, ensuring a complete lubrication. Hydrophilic catheters were introduced to reduce catheter-related complications and improve patient’s comfort and acceptance.

Today, catheters are produced from two types of materials

1. Latex

Latex has been used for the production of medical equipment since 1888. In addition to its proven qualities, a high incidence of allergies has been revealed as well. The discussion about this problem begins in the late ’80s, with the occurrence of several cases of anaphylaxis (severe allergic reaction) during surgery. Because of its severe allergic reactions, especially in children, substitute materials such as PVC are increasingly being used instead of latex.

2. PVC

Polyvinyl chloride or PVC is a synthetic material and a very important member of a wide polymer family. Without the addition of a softener, it would be very hard and fragile, and practically useless for technical applications. However, with the addition of a “softener” it becomes flexible and elastic. One of these “softeners” is DEHP (diethylhexilftalate) which belongs to the class of phthalates, which is widely used on the market as an additive to PVC.

What are phthalates and are you harmful to your health?

Phthalates are esters of the phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohols. They are volatile liquids which are added to polymer plastics to increase their softness. They are also known as plasticisers or softeners. That means they’re in almost everything that surrounds us. Recent research increasingly confirms the harmful impact of phthalates, both on human beings and on the entire environment. Phthalates on the human body act as hormonal disruptors,

disrupting the balance of hormones, resulting in an increasing feminisation of males. In addition, it was proven that they cause cancer which is primarily manifested in the form of malignant breast cancer and testicular cancer.

Phthalates cause various malformations on the testicular tissue and a reduced fertility in males.